Ministry of Health position statement – E-cigarettes
11 October 2017: In 2011, the Government set a goal for Smokefree 2025. The goal aims to reduce smoking prevalence to minimal levels.
The Ministry of Health believes e-cigarettes have the potential to make a contribution to the Smokefree 2025 goal and could disrupt the significant inequities that are present.
The potential of e-cigarettes to help improve public health depends on the extent to which they can act as a route out of smoking for New Zealand’s 550,000 daily smokers, without providing a route into smoking for children and non-smokers.
Recent decisions taken by Government have increased the focus on harm reduction with an aim to support smokers to switch to significantly less harmful products like e-cigarettes.
The Ministry of Health encourages smokers who want to use e-cigarettes to quit smoking to seek the support of local stop smoking services. Local stop smoking services provide smokers with the best chance of quitting successfully and should support smokers who want to quit with the help of e-cigarettes.
Expert opinion is that e-cigarettes are significantly less harmful than smoking tobacco but not completely harmless. A range of toxicants have been found in e-cigarette vapour including some cancer causing agents but, in general, at levels much lower than found in cigarette smoke or at levels that are unlikely to cause harm. Smokers switching to e-cigarettes are highly likely to reduce their health risks and for those around them.
When used as intended, e-cigarettes pose no risk of nicotine poisoning to users, but e-liquids should be in child resistant packaging. E-cigarettes release negligible levels of nicotine and other toxicants into ambient air with no identified health risks to bystanders.
Currently there are no mandatory product safety requirements specifically for e-cigarettes in New Zealand, however generic product safety standards apply.
The Ministry of Health will continue to monitor the uptake of e-cigarettes, their health impact at individual and population levels, including long term effects and their effectiveness for smoking cessation as products, evidence and technologies develop.
The Ministry of Health will also continue to meet its obligations under Article 5.3 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to protect public health policy from commercial and other vested interests of the tobacco industry.
- The best thing smokers can do for their health is to quit smoking for good
- E-cigarettes are intended for smokers only
- The Ministry believes e-cigarettes could disrupt inequities and contribute to Smokefree 2025
- The evidence on e-cigarettes indicates they carry much less risk than smoking cigarettes but are not risk free
- The Cochrane Review found that e-cigarettes can help people to quit smoking, but acknowledges that the evidence is weak due to little data
- Smokers who have tried other methods of quitting without success could be encouraged to try e-cigarettes to stop smoking. Stop smoking services should support smokers using e-cigarettes to quit
- There is no international evidence that e-cigarettes are undermining the long-term decline in cigarette smoking among adults and youth, and may in fact be contributing to it
- Despite some experimentation with e-cigarettes among never smokers, e-cigarettes are attracting very few people who have never smoked into regular e-cigarette use
- When used as intended, e-cigarettes pose no risk of nicotine poisoning to users, but e-liquids should be in child resistant packaging
- The Ministry of Health is identifying safety standards for e-cigarettes in New Zealand. In the meantime, vapers should buy their products from a reputable source like specialist retailers.
E-cigarettes to be regulated as consumer products
29 March 2017: The Government is planning to change the law regulating e-cigarettes. These changes need to go through Parliament before they can take effect. This will likely happen from the middle of 2018 at the earliest.
The proposed changes are to:
- legalise the sale and supply of nicotine e-cigarettes and e-liquid as consumer products
- regulate nicotine and non-nicotine e-cigarettes and e-liquid as follows:
- prohibit sale, and supply in a public place, to under 18 year olds
- restrict sale via vending machines to R18 settings
- allow all retailers to display e-cigarettes and e-liquid at point-of-sale
- allow R18 retail settings to display e-cigarettes and e-liquid in-store (including window display), promote products on the outside of the store, and offer discounts, free samples, loyalty awards etc.
- prohibit broader advertising, e.g. billboards, radio, TV, Internet (the rules above will apply to retailers’ websites)
- prohibit vaping in workplaces and other areas where smoking is not allowed under the Smoke-free Environments Act 1990 (SFEA)
- set requirements for product safety (e.g. nicotine concentration, child-resistant closures etc.)
In addition to these changes, a regulatory framework will be developed to provide a pathway for emerging tobacco and nicotine-delivery products to be regulated as consumer products in future.
- Cabinet paper: Improving the regulatory framework for e-cigarettes and emerging tobacco and nicotine-delivery products (Word, 129 KB)
- Regulatory impact statement - Regulation of e-cigarettes and emerging tobacco and nicotine-delivery products
- Consultation on Electronic Cigarettes: Analysis of submissions
Electronic cigarettes (or e-cigarettes) are electrical devices that heat a solution (or e-liquid), which produces a vapour that the user inhales or ‘vapes’. The ingredients of the liquid may vary, but currently most e-liquids contain propylene glycol and flavouring agents. Some e-liquids contain nicotine.
E-cigarettes come in a range of styles, from devices that look similar to traditional cigarettes (first generation or cig-a-like) to refillable-cartridge ‘tank’ systems (second generation) to highly advanced appliances with larger batteries that allow the power to be adjusted to meet an individual’s specific vapour requirements (third generation).
Second and third generation e-cigarettes generally deliver more nicotine than first generation e‑cigarettes.
Risks with using e-cigarettes
There is evidence that e-cigarettes pose fewer health risks to smokers who switch completely from tobacco smoking to e-cigarette use. Tobacco smoking, even at a reduced level, remains harmful.
Short-term use of e-cigarettes has been associated with mild adverse effects such as headaches, dry mouth or throat, and throat or mouth irritation. The health risks associated with the long-term use of e-cigarettes are unknown. It is only known that the risks of smoking are likely to be much greater.
Some e-liquids contain nicotine. For smokers, the nicotine in e-cigarettes poses little danger, however, in excessive amounts it can be lethal, especially for children. Nicotine products should be kept out of reach of others, particularly children.
Use of e-cigarettes for stopping smoking
There is a good rationale for people to use e-cigarettes to help them stop smoking as e‑cigarettes can provide nicotine, which is what people desire from smoking.
Research into the effectiveness of e-cigarettes in smoking cessation is growing, but the findings from these studies are somewhat mixed and the quality of the evidence is low overall. This is an active area of research and more findings will become available over the next few years.
At this stage, the Ministry of Health does not have enough evidence to recommend e-cigarettes confidently as a smoking-cessation tool. Smokers should use approved smoking-cessation medicines, such as NRT, to support them to stop smoking and seek behavioural support from stop-smoking services.
People who choose to use e-cigarettes (to vape), should aim to stop smoking completely to reduce the harm from smoking. Ideally, they should eventually stop vaping as well.
- Electronic Cigarettes: Information for health care workers (pdf 80 KB)
- E-cigarettes – information for stop smoking services (pdf,94.61 KB)
Legislation covering e-cigarettes
The Medicines Act 1981 and the Smoke-free Environments Act 1990 (SFEA) regulate the sale, advertising and use of e-cigarettes and the nicotine liquids used with e-cigarettes.
Nicotine is a scheduled substance under the Medicines Act. It is illegal to sell an e-cigarette (with or without nicotine) while making a therapeutic claim (e.g. claims to help smokers quit), unless the product has been approved for that purpose by Medsafe. To-date, no company has applied to have an e-cigarette approved as a stop-smoking medicine.
Nicotine-containing e-cigarettes and e-liquid are tobacco products, regulated under the SFEA, if they are manufactured from tobacco.
The SFEA prohibits the sale of tobacco products for oral use (other than smoking). Products containing nicotine derived from tobacco fall within this definition and the sale of these products is prohibited.
In addition, products that look like a tobacco product or smoking pipe and can be used to simulate smoking (toy tobacco products) cannot be sold to a person under 18 years, even if they do not contain nicotine.
People can import up to three months’ supply of nicotine-containing products for their own use, but cannot sell or supply these products to anyone else.
Vaping in smoke-free places is not prohibited by the Smoke-free Environments Act 1990. However, individual organisations can ban the use of e-cigarettes as part of their own smokefree policies.
Requirements for importers and retailers of e-cigarettes
Seek independent legal advice from your legal advisor for your specific circumstances.
E-cigarettes are regulated primarily under the Medicines Act 1981 and the Smoke-free Environments Act 1990. Both Acts are available on the legislation.govt.nz website:
Note that it is prohibited:
- under the Medicines Act 1981 to advertise, sell and distribute nicotine and non-nicotine e‑cigarettes for a therapeutic purpose unless these products have been approved by Medsafe
- under the Smoke-free Environments Act 1990 to advertise, sell and distribute e-cigarettes and e‑liquid that contain nicotine derived from tobacco
- under the Smoke-free Environments Act 1990 to sell, supply and distribute e-cigarettes which look like a tobacco product (toy tobacco product) to people under the age of 18 years.
Other legislation may also apply to the advertising, selling and distribution of e-cigarettes depending on the circumstances. This includes the Consumer Guarantees Act 1993, the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996, and the Customs and Excise Act 1996.
If you have any doubts about your legal obligations as an importer or a retailer of e-cigarettes, you should seek independent legal advice.
It is the responsibility of manufacturers, importers and retailers to ensure compliance with all legislative requirements.
- Policy Options for the Regulation of Electronic Cigarettes
- Consultation on Electronic Cigarettes: Analysis of submissions
Past cabinet papers
- Electronic-cigarettes: policy options and approval to consult (docx, 185 KB)
- Electronic-cigarettes: policy options and approval to consult (pdf, 118 KB)