Polio is a highly infectious viral disease that can cause paralysis (muscle weakness). Polio has disappeared from New Zealand and most parts of the world as a result of immunisation, but it still exists in some developing countries. The Western Pacific region was declared polio free in 2000.
Polio still exists in some overseas countries and could be brought into New Zealand by travellers and immigrants. It’s important that New Zealand children and international travellers continue to be immunised against polio.
The current list of polio infected countries is available on the Polio Global Eradication Initiative website.
For information about current outbreaks see our travel page.
How it is spread
The virus is found in fluids from the nose and throat and is spread by coughing, sneezing or sharing drink bottles.
It’s also spread by contact with the faeces (poos) of an infected person. This can happen if people don’t wash their hands properly after going to the toilet or changing babies’ nappies.
Most people infected with polio do not have symptoms.
For people that do develop illness, the symptoms are:
- stiffness of the neck and back
- pain in the limbs, back or neck, with or without paralysis.
There is no cure for polio, it can only be prevented by immunisation. People affected by paralysis will need hospital care. Some people need long term treatment for paralysis.
Immunisation protects people against polio.
It’s important to protect babies from polio by getting them immunised on time. They’re not protected until they’ve had all 3 doses.
All babies in New Zealand can be immunised against polio as part of their free childhood immunisations at 6 weeks, 3 months and 5 months old.
Booster doses are given to children when they’re 4 years old.
Adults who weren’t immunised as children
Polio vaccine is available and funded for adults who have not received their childhood vaccines. You will need 3 doses of polio-containing vaccine. You should wait 8 weeks between the first 2 doses, and have the third dose approximately 12 months later.
Travellers to areas where polio is present
If you’re travelling to an area or country where polio is present – and if it has been more than 10 years since you last had polio vaccine – you should have a booster dose. You’ll need to pay for the cost of the booster.
This disease is covered on the New Zealand Immunisation Schedule. The vaccines used are INFANRIX®- hexa and INFANRIX-IPV™.
The IPOL® vaccine is funded for adults who have not received their childhood immunisations.
Risks associated with polio
- About 1 in 20 hospitalised patients die and 0.1–2 in 100 patients who survive are permanently paralysed.
- The overall risk of paralysis is about 1 in 100. This increases with age, eg, for adults it is 1 in 75.
- There are 2–10 deaths in 100 cases from paralytic polio.
- Post-polio syndrome (muscle pain and worsening of existing muscle weakness) may occur 30–40 years after polio.
Risks associated with the vaccine
- No serious reactions have been reported.
Inactivated polio vaccine and oral polio vaccine
There are 2 types of polio vaccine used in the world today.
New Zealand and most other developed countries use the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). This contains dead (inactivated) polio virus – so it can’t cause illness. The vaccine is provided as an injection, usually with other childhood immunisations.
In the past, New Zealand used the oral polio vaccine. Many developing countries still use this vaccine. It contains a live but weakened form of the virus. It is easier to store, transport and administer than the inactivated polio vaccine, and provides longer-lasting immunity. However, the weakened virus can cause polio in about 1 in 750,000 cases. Because of this risk, New Zealand switched to using the inactivated vaccine in 2002.
The World Health Organization plans to withdraw the oral polio vaccine worldwide when polio nears global elimination.