Cardiovascular disease (50+ years)

Blood pressure and blood cholesterol indicators

According to Table 16, Māori males and females aged 50–64 years were significantly more likely than non-Māori to report they had been diagnosed with high blood pressure (RR 1.40, CI 1.08–1.72 for males, RR 1.33, CI 1.06–1.60 for females). Māori males aged 50–64 years were significantly more likely than non-Māori males to report taking pills for high blood pressure (RR 1.63, CI 1.15–2.11), but there was no significant difference between Māori and non-Māori females of this age (RR 1.28, CI 0.94–1.61).

For the 65+ years age group, there were no significant differences in any of the blood pressure or blood cholesterol indicators between Māori and non-Māori.

How to interpret results – table

Table 16: Blood pressure and blood cholesterol indicators, Māori and non-Māori, by gender, 2006/07
  Males Females
  50–64 years 65+ years 50–64 years 65+ years
Indicator Māori non-Maori Māori non-Māori Māori non-Māori Māori non-Māori
Ever diagnosed high blood pressure (self-reported), 2006/07, percent 43.2
(34.8–51.6)
30.9
(27.5–34.3)
54.7
(42.4–67.1)
48.1
(44.1–52.1)
41.9
(34.5–49.3)
31.6
(28.4–34.8)
60.7
(51.3–70.1)
54.0
(50.8–57.3)
Currently taking pills for high blood pressure (self-reported), 2006/07, percent 33.7
(25.5–41.9)
20.7
(17.7–23.6)
45.2
(33.5–56.9)
42.6
(38.7–46.4)
28.5
(21.8–35.3)
22.4
(19.8–25.0)
53.5
(43.5–63.4)
45.4
(41.9–48.8)
Ever diagnosed high blood cholesterol (self-reported), 2006/07, percent 33.5
(24.4–42.5)
37.3
(33.4–41.1)
38.4
(26.7–50.0)
37.4
(33.6–41.3)
25.8
(19.6–32.0)
29.6
(26.7–32.4)
31.6
(21.1–42.1)
38.7
(35.7–41.7)
Currently taking pills for high blood cholesterol (self-reported), 2006/07, percent 17.7
(11.1–24.3)
19.2
(16.3–22.0)
28.3
(17.3–39.3)
24.5
(21.1–27.9)
12.7
(7.8–17.6)
13.0
(10.8–15.1)
24.4
(13.3–35.5)
23.5
(20.9–26.2)

Source: 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, Ministry of Health

Notes:
Age standardised to the 2001 Census total Māori population.
Prioritised ethnicity has been used see Ngā Tapuae me ngā Raraunga: Methods and data sources for further information.

Cardiovascular disease indicators

Table 17 shows that Māori of both genders and age groups had significantly higher mortality and hospitalisation rates for total cardiovascular disease than non-Māori. The greatest disparity was in the 50–64 years age group, where Māori females were 5 times more likely to die of a cardiovascular disease than non-Māori females the same age (RR 5.02, CI 4.32–5.83). Māori females aged 50–64 years were almost 3.5 times more likely to be hospitalised for cardiovascular disease than non-Māori females of this age (RR 3.42, CI 3.30–3.55).

Stroke mortality and stroke hospitalisation were higher for Māori across both genders and age groups compared with non-Māori, except for stroke mortality for males aged 65+ years, where there was no significant difference.

The heart failure mortality rate for Māori aged 65+ years was significantly higher than for non-Māori, among both males and females (RR 2.80, CI 1.73–4.54 for males; RR 1.70, CI 1.09–2.66 for females). Both Māori males and Māori females of this age were almost 5 times more likely to be hospitalised for heart failure than non-Māori (RR 4.73, CI 4.33–5.17 for males; RR 4.85, CI 4.37–5.38 for females).

Rheumatic heart disease mortality in the 50–64 years age group was almost 7 times higher in Māori males than in non-Māori males (RR 6.86, CI 3.64–12.92), and for females this age the rate of rheumatic heart disease mortality was over 12 times higher in Māori than in non-Māori (RR 12.34, CI 7.36–20.69). The rheumatic heart disease hospitalisation rate was nearly 7 times higher in Māori males aged 50–64 years than in non-Māori of the same sex and age (RR 6.85, CI 4.99–9.39), while the rheumatic heart disease hospitalisation rate for Māori females this age was 11.5 higher than for non-Māori (RR 11.60, CI 9.04–14.90). Rheumatic heart disease mortality and hospitalisation rates in the 65+ years age group showed that the disparity between Māori and non-Māori continues into the oldest age group.

How to interpret results – table

Table 17: Cardiovascular disease indicators, Māori and non-Māori, by gender
  Males Females
  50–64 years 65+ years 50–64 years 65+ years
Indicator Māori non-Maori Māori non-Māori Māori non-Māori Māori non-Māori
Total cardiovascular disease mortality, 2005–07, rate per 100,000 637.8
(583.9–695.2)
159.7
(151.8–167.8)
2427.5
(2259.3–2605.0)
1220.9
(1198.6–1243.4)
280.5
(246.4–317.9)
55.9
(51.3–60.7)
1741.7
(1618.9–1871.4)
829.2
(815.9–842.7)
Total cardiovascular disease hospitalisation, 2007–09, rate per 100,000 5573.1
(5345.4–5810.4)
2569.8
(2531.2–2609.0)
10249.2
(9655.2–10879.8)
6605.3
(6504.1–6708.0)
3988.4
(3814.2–4170.6)
1166.6
(1138.8–1195.0)
8197.3
(7719.5–8704.6)
3881.5
(3805.9–3958.7)
Stroke mortality, 2005–07, rate per 100,000 56.1
(40.9–75.1)
21.3
(18.5–24.4)
289.7
(233.2–355.6)
253.8
(244.0–264.0)
41.3
(28.9–57.2)
17.3
(14.8–20.1)
377.1
(321.7–439.2)
248.0
(240.8–255.3)
Stroke hospitalisation, 2007–09, rate per 100,000 392.3
(348.6–441.5)
184.7
(175.1–194.8)
922.8
(800.7–1063.6)
612.6
(584.7–641.8)
428.3
(384.6–477.1)
119.5
(111.2–128.4)
935.4
(819.7–1067.3)
387.1
(365.1–410.3)
Heart failure mortality, 2005–07, rate per 100,000 7.3
(2.7–16.0)
62.3
(36.9–98.5)
22.3
(19.7–25.1)
0.6
(0.2–1.3)
42.2
(25.8–65.1)
24.8
(22.9–26.8)
Heart failure hospitalisation, 2007–09, rate per 100,000, 951.6
(879.3–1029.8)
108.2
(98.4–119.1)
2519.9
(2299.3–2761.7)
532.5
(502.0–564.8)
513.9
(464.5–568.6)
55.0
(48.1–62.9)
1555.5
(1401.9–1725.8)
320.6
(298.8–343.9)
Rheumatic heart disease mortality, 2005–07, rate per 100,000 19.3
(10.8–31.8)
2.8
(1.9–4.1)
71.3
(45.2–106.9)
12.9
(10.7–15.3)
33.6
(22.7–48.0)
2.7
(1.8–3.9)
72.3
(48.0–104.4)
16.5
(14.4–18.8)
Rheumatic heart disease hospitalisation, 2007–09, rate per 100,000 72.7
(55.9–94.5)
10.6
(8.0–14.1)
120.3
(78.8–183.5)
37.9
(30.3–47.4)
136.7
(113.5–164.5)
11.8
(8.5–16.3)
126.0
(86.8–182.8)
37.9
(30.7–46.9)

Sources: Mortality Collection (MORT), Ministry of Health; National Minimum Dataset (Hospital Events) (NMDS), Ministry of Health

Notes:
Age standardised to the 2001 Census total Māori population.
Hospitalisations are ethnicity-adjusted rates; all other rates use prioritised ethnicity see Ngā Tapuae me ngā Raraunga: Methods and data sources for further information.
A dash (–) indicates the data were unavailable due to low counts.

Ischaemic heart disease indicators

Although the risk of ischaemic heart disease were higher among males in both age groups, relative differences were greater between Māori and non-Māori females than between Māori and non-Māori males.

Table 18 shows that among those aged 50–64 years of age, the ischaemic heart disease mortality rate was almost 6 times higher for Māori females than for non-Māori females (RR 5.80, CI 4.68–7.19). Māori females aged 50–64 years were over 3 times more likely than non-Māori to be hospitalised for ischaemic heart disease (RR 3.32, CI 3.12–3.53). Re-vascularisation procedures in this age group were almost 3 times higher for Māori females than for non-Māori females (RR 2.83, CI 2.40–3.33).

For males in the 65+ years age group, ischaemic heart disease mortality was twice as high for Māori as for non-Māori (RR 2.08, CI 1.90–2.28). However, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of ischaemic heart disease hospitalisation (RR 1.04, CI 0.97–1.12). Furthermore, the re-vascularisation procedure rates for Māori males were significantly lower than for non-Māori males (RR 0.76, CI 0.63–0.92).

How to interpret results – table

Table 18: Ischaemic heart disease indicators, Māori and non-Māori, by gender
  Males Females
  50–64 years 65+ years 50–64 years 65+ years
Indicator Māori non-Maori Māori non-Māori Māori non-Māori Māori non-Māori
Ischaemic heart disease mortality, 2005–07, rate per 100,000 441.0
(396.4–489.2)
112.0
(105.4–118.8)
1540.5
(1407.3–1683.0)
739.7
(722.3–757.5)
144.1
(120.1–171.6)
24.8
(21.9–28.1)
945.7
(855.5–1042.9)
407.3
(398.0–416.7)
Ischaemic heart disease hospitalisation, 2007–09, rate per 100,000 2054.6
(1939.9–2176.1)
1291.5
(1266.2–1317.3)
3134.0
(2871.1–3421.0)
3002.9
(2938.6–3068.6)
1412.3
(1324.5–1505.9)
425.4
(409.5–441.9)
2694.6
(2468.8–2941.0)
1435.6
(1391.7–1480.9)
All re-vascularisation (CABG* and angioplasty) heart disease procedures, 2007–09, rate per 100,000 396.9
(353.2–446.1)
326.0
(313.9–338.5)
516.0
(422.9–629.5)
680.8
(650.3–712.7)
196.2
(167.8–229.5)
69.4
(63.5–75.9)
303.1
(237.4–387.0)
228.3
(211.2–246.8)

Sources: Mortality Collection (MORT), Ministry of Health; National Minimum Dataset (Hospital Events) (NMDS), Ministry of Health

Notes:
Age standardised to the 2001 Census total Māori population.
Hospitalisations and procedures are ethnicity-adjusted rates; all other rates use prioritised ethnicity see Ngā Tapuae me ngā Raraunga: Methods and data sources for further information.
* Coronary artery bypass graft.

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